To develop the basic concepts of quantum physics and apply them to a variety of physical and engineering systems


Prerequisites              None


To equip the student with knowledge of the non-linear optical behavior in materials and the different non-linear optical processes 

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this course, the student should be able to:

i.  Explain the process of non-linear polarization in non-linear optical propagation.

ii. Demonstrate the non-linear processes as energy conserving mechanisms.

iii.Describe the phase matching methods applicable to different non-linear processes.

iv. Explain second harmonic generation, three wave mixing, optical parametric amplification (OPA) and             optical parametric oscillation (OPO).

v.  Explain the tuning processes in optical parametric oscillators and nonlinear susceptibilities.

Course Description

Nonlinear optical susceptibility: introduction to non-linear optics, descriptions of non-linear optical processes, non-linear susceptibility of a classical anharmonic oscillator, properties of non-linear susceptibility, Kramers-Kronig relations in linear and non-linear optics; wave equation description of non-linear optical interactions: wave equation for non-linear optical media, conservation of energy and momentum, coupled wave equations for sum frequency generation, methods of phase matching, Quasi-phase-matching, Manley-Rowe relations, sum frequency generation, second harmonic generation, difference frequency generation and parametric amplification, optical parametric oscillators, tuning of parametric oscillators, non-linear optical interactions with focused Gaussian beams, non-linear optics at an interface

Teaching methodology:

Lectures, tutorials, group discussions; and practicals.

Instructional materials/equipments:

White board and white board markers, LCD projector, Laptop and Internet connection, Laboratory Equipments and Components.

Course assessment

Continuous assessment                       30%

End semester examination                  70%

Core Reading Materials:

Course Textbooks

1.  New G. (2014). Introduction to Nonlinear Optics, (1st Ed.). Cambridge University Press,ISBN-13: 978-1107424487

2.  Powers P. (2011). Fundamentals of Nonlinear Optics, (1st Ed.). CRC press,ISBN-13: 978-142009351

3.  Boyd R. (2008). Nonlinear Optics, (3rd Ed.). Academic press Publication. ISBN-13: 978-0123694706

Course Journals

1.  Journal of nonlinear Optical Physics & Materials, World Scientific, ISSN: 1793-6624

2.  European Journal of Physics, IOP Science, ISSN: 1361-6404

3.  Journal of Applied Physics, AIP, ISSN: 0021-8979

Reference Materials:

Reference Textbooks

1.  Powers P.E. (2011). Fundamentals of Nonlinear Optics, (1st Ed.). CRC Press, ISBN-13: 978-1420093513

2.  Guang S. (2014). Nonlinear Optics and Photonics, (1st Ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN-13: 978-             0198702764

3.  Guenther B. (2015). Modern Optics, (2nd Ed.). Wiley Publishers,ISBN-13:978-0198738770

Reference Journals

1.  Current Applied Physics, ELSEVIER, ISSN: 1567-173

2.  Journal of Optics, Springer, ISSN: 0974-690

3.  Journal of Physics D, IOPScience, ISSN: 1361-6463

SPL 2424 Course Outline.pdfSPL 2424 Course Outline.pdf

Laser Basics

  • Essential elements of a LASER
  • Simplified description of Laser operation
  • Characteristics of Laser light
  • Laser types and parameters
  • Basis for defining Laser beam mode structures

Superposition of Waves

  • Superposition principle
  • Superposition of waves of the same frequency
  • Random/coherent sources
  • Standing waves
  • Group and phase velocities

Interference of light

  • 2-beam interference
  • Young’s double-slit experiment
  • Double slit experiment with virtual sources


  • Interference in dielectric films
  • Newton rings
  • Film thickness measurement by interferometry
  • Experiment 1